New Dietary And Exercise Guidelines

Americans were urged to get more exercise Thursday by a panel of scientists recommending new dietary guidelines. ``To reduce some of the main killers of America we will have to increase the level of physical activity,'' said Dr. Benjamin Caballero of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Caballero's comment came as the Institute of Medicine released a two-volume study updating it's guidelines for a healthy diet.

For the first time the Institute added an exercise recommendation, urging that Americas get at least an hour of physical activity daily.  That's twice the amount that had been recommended by the surgeon general. The report proposes recommended ranges for the amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate in the diet. It calls for limiting added sugars but says everyone should get at least 130 grams of carbohydrates daily to maintain brain function. ``The ranges are new and were developed to assure a nutritionally adequate diet,'' commented Joanne R. Lupton of Texas A&M University, head of the committee that prepared the study.

In addition to recommending an hour of exercise daily for adults, the same amount was suggested for youngsters, and comes at a time when worry is increasing over the large number of obese children. Indeed, former Surgeon General David Satcher has organized a national summit of health and education experts next month to discuss ways to trim the fat from young people.

In its dietary recommendations, the Institute edged away from previous guidelines that called for getting 50 percent or more of calories from carbohydrates and 30 percent or less from fat. ``We established ranges for fat, carbohydrates and protein because they must be considered together,'' said Lupton, a professor of nutrition. The Institute, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences, said that because fats, carbohydrates and protein can all serve as sources of energy they can, to some extent, substitute for one another in providing calories.

The newly recommended guidelines call for getting 45 percent to 65 percent of calories from carbohydrates, 20 percent to 35 percent from fat and 10 percent to 35 percent from protein. The protein recommendation is the same as in the past. Lupton noted that studies have shown that when people eat very low levels of fat and very high levels of carbohydrates their so-called good cholesterol declines. Good cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein, can reduce the likelihood of heart attack. On the other hand, she added, high-fat diets can lead to obesity and its health dangers.

The report is one of a series updating the dietary guidelines issued by the Institute in 1989. It is based on a review of thousands of studies of the effects of consumption of fats, protein and carbohydrates and the potential relationship with various diseases. The study noted that fat is a major source of energy in the diet, but urged avoiding saturated fats as much as possible because they can increase the risk of heart disease. The main sources of saturated fats are baked goods, meat and full-fat dairy products.

Trans-fatty acids, often found in cookies, crackers and meats also pose a health risk. The Institute recommended in a report released earlier this year that trans-fatty acids be listed on food product labels so people can reduce their intake.

The report includes recommendations for daily intake of fiber, noting that diets low in fiber have been associated with an increased risk of heart disease. Adding fiber to the diet may also decrease likelihood of colon cancer, the study noted. For adults under age 50 the report recommends a daily intake of 38 grams of fiber for men and 25 grams for women. Over age 50 the recommendations are 30 grams for men and 21 grams for women.

The National Academy of Sciences is an independent organization chartered by Congress to provide guidance to the government in scientific issues.