The Early Learning Standards are broken into five categories that help measure a child's knowledge of science, English language arts, math, physical development, and social and emotional development. Each one lists a number of objectives in detail.
For instance, in the science standard students are expected to develop an awareness of living and non-living things and understand the five senses, as well as begin to make observations by comparing and contrasting objects.
In the language arts standard, four year olds are expected to learn how to recognize all letters of the alphabet, both upper and lowercase, and differentiate letters from numbers. They're also encouraged to learn how write their first name.
In the mathematics standard, students (with a little help) should be able to count to 30 and start trying to write the numbers zero through 10.
These are just the tip of the iceberg. There are many more objectives listed under each standard, and parents are encouraged to review them all. The more familiar you are with them, the more you can help your child grow up happy, healthy and ready to learn.